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gustavus adolphus thirty years war

Leaving Wrangel to finish the war in Denmark, in May 1644 Torstenson marched into the Empire; Gallas was unable to stop him, while the Danes sued for peace after their defeat at Fehmarn in October 1644. [65], Expectations of widespread support proved unrealistic; by the end of 1630, the only new Swedish ally was Magdeburg, which was besieged by Tilly. However, it was a compromise that failed to resolve underlying religious and political tensions within the Holy Roman Empire. The political disintegration of the Polish commonwealth led to the 1655 to 1660 Second Northern War with Sweden, which also involved Denmark, Russia and Brandenburg, while two Swedish attempts to impose its control on the port of Bremen failed in 1654 and 1666. Sources The Thirty Years War by C. V. Wedgwood Gustavus Adolphus and the Struggle of Protestantism for Existence by C. R. L. Fletcher Their attribution by some to supernatural causes led to a series of Witch-hunts, beginning in Franconia in 1626 and quickly spreading to other parts of Germany, which were often exploited for political purposes. Gustavus Adolphus once wrote that, “All wars in Europe hang together.” If Ferdinand was successful in creating a centralized Catholic Germany, Sweden would be in danger. [130] The financial impact is less clear; while the war caused short-term economic dislocation, overall it accelerated existing changes in trading patterns. It does not appear to have reversed ongoing macro-economic trends, such as the reduction of price differentials between regional markets, and a greater degree of market integration across Europe. They therefore include factors unrelated to death or disease, such as permanent migration to areas outside the Empire or lower birthrates, a common but less obvious impact of extended warfare. More common were disputes such as the 1606 'Battle of the Flags' in Donauwörth, when the Lutheran majority blocked a Catholic religious procession. This was due to the influx of soldiers from foreign countries, the shifting locations of battle fronts, as well as the displacement of rural populations into already crowded cities. Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWilson1976 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFClodfelter2017 (. Frederick's son Charles Louis regained the Lower Palatinate and became the eighth Imperial elector, although Bavaria kept the Upper Palatinate and its electoral vote. Sweden emerged unscathed. The main objective was to gain as much loot as possible before the war ended; they failed to take the Old Town but captured the Imperial library, along with treasures including the Codex Gigas, now in Stockholm. They offered the Crown to the Protestant Frederick V of the Palatinate, who accepted, but most German princes refused to support him, and by early 1620 the Bohemian Revolt had been suppressed. [132], The breakdown of social order caused by the war was often more significant and longer lasting than the immediate damage. According to the opening narration, Krabat (2006) takes place at the time of the Thirty Years War… [101], Northern Italy had been contested by France and the Habsburgs for centuries, since it was vital for control of South-West France, an area with a long history of opposition to the central authorities. [140], The extent to which these witch-hunts were symptomatic of the impact of the conflict on society is debatable, since many took place in areas relatively untouched by the war. He was well prepared for the greatest war of his life. This threatened both Lutherans and Calvinists, paralysed the Diet, and removed the perception of Imperial neutrality. Four of the electors were Catholic, three Protestant; if this could be changed, it might result in a Protestant Emperor. [50], Ferdinand had paid Wallenstein for his support against Frederick with estates confiscated from the Bohemian rebels, and now contracted with him to conquer the north on a similar basis. The combination destabilised large parts of the Empire. [78] Ferdinand was forced to divert Piccolomini's army from Thionville, effectively ending direct military cooperation with Spain. The treaty confirmed Dutch independence, although the Imperial Diet did not formally accept that it was no longer part of the Empire until 1728. This meant each of the 224 member states was either Lutheran, the most usual form of Protestantism, or Catholic, based on the choice made by their ruler. Gustavus Adolphus - Gustavus Adolphus - Entrance into the Thirty Years’ War: The motives prompting his intervention have long been a subject of historical controversy. Ferdinand paid Wallenstein by letting him confiscate estates, extort ransoms from towns, and allowing his men to plunder the lands they passed through, regardless of whether they belonged to allies or opponents. In return, they dissolved the Heilbronn and Catholic Leagues. The Battle of Lutzen occurred on November 16, 1632 during the Thirty Years' War and resulted in a Swedish victory though gifted leader King Gustavus Adolphus was killed in the fighting. This forced them to become smaller and more mobile, with a greater emphasis on cavalry, shortened the campaigning seasons and restricted them to main supply lines. Christian retained his German possessions of Schleswig and Holstein, in return for relinquishing Bremen and Verden, and abandoning support for the German Protestants. [122] Well into the 19th century, far more soldiers died of disease than in battle; of an estimated 700,000 to 1,200,000 military casualties between 1618 and 1648, only 25 to 30% were the result of combat, or combat-related injuries. It was the struggle to secure religious liberty,–a warfare between Catholic and Protestant Germany. Under the April 1635 Treaty of Compiègne negotiated with Axel Oxenstierna, Richelieu agreed new subsidies for the Swedes. He died at the Battle of Lutzen on November 6, 1632. Contact Us. [43], Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions. Chronic financial weakness meant prior to 1619 the Austrian Habsburgs had no standing army of any size, leaving them dependent on Maximilian and their Spanish relatives for money and men. In return, Ferdinand made concessions to Spain in Northern Italy and Alsace, and agreed to support their offensive against the Dutch. The Thirty Years War by C. V. Wedgwood If his troops were engaged in Germany, the undefended homeland would be attacked by Poland, or another of Sweden’s unfriendly Catholic neighbors. [83], Despite the death of Bernhard, over the next two years the Franco-Swedish alliance won a series of battles in Germany, including Wolfenbüttel in June 1641 and Kempen in January 1642. Queen Christina (1933), the film starring Greta Garbo, opens with the death of Christina's father, King Gustavus Adolphus, at the Battle of Lützen in the Thirty Years' War. On the one side I understand that they intend to offer you the title of Admiral of the Roman Empire … in the same breath they have offered to help me to a safe and durable peace with Poland … nay even the Kingdom of Denmark for myself as Imperial fief, if I will ally myself with the Emperor against you. At Second Breitenfeld in October 1642, Lennart Torstenson inflicted almost 10,000 casualties on an Imperial army led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria. [139] In 2012, she and other victims were officially exonerated by the Cologne City Council. [141] A scathing condemnation of the trials, Cautio Criminalis, was written by professor and poet Friedrich Spee, himself a Jesuit and former "witch confessor". [103], France and Savoy made peace in the April 1629 Treaty of Suza, which allowed French troops passage through Savoy, and recognised their control of Casale and Pinerolo. Gustavus wrote to Oxenstiern, his chancellor: You say that we haven’t money to pay troops for more than four months: granted; but once let us plant our foothold sure, and God and the hour will teach us how to strengthen ourselves further. The German Protestants had been overrun by the Catholics, and the Swedish king wished to recover their rights, and restore Protestantism to power. [80] Cutting the Spanish Road had forced Madrid to resupply their armies in Flanders by sea and in October 1639 a large Spanish convoy was destroyed at the Battle of the Downs. In the last phase of the Thirty Years’ War, the most dominant player on the Protestant side was Catholic France. Christian IV of Denmark was also Duke of Holstein, and it was in this capacity he joined the war in 1625. There was little serious fighting after France took control of Perpignan and Roussillon, establishing the modern Franco-Spanish border in the Pyrenees. Although the battle was far from decisive, the rebels were demoralised by lack of pay, shortages of supplies, and disease, while the countryside had been devastated by Imperial troops. Did he want to restore the rights of the German princes, or make them vassals of the Swedish crown? While both Leagues were primarily designed to support the dynastic ambitions of their leaders, their creation combined with events like the 1609 to 1614 War of the Jülich Succession to increase tensions throughout the Empire. [99] Outnumbered by a Franco-Swedish army under Wrangel and Turenne, they were defeated at Zusmarshausen in May 1648, while von Holzappel was killed. The high mortality rate compared to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in Britain may partly be due to the reliance of all sides on foreign mercenaries, often unpaid and required to live off the land. So in 1625 Denmark entered into the war, and Gustavus resolved to stay out of it for the time. [147], While differences over religion remained an issue throughout the 17th century, it was the last major war in Continental Europe in which it can be said to be a primary driver; later conflicts were either internal, such as the Camisards revolt in South-Western France, or relatively minor like the 1712 Toggenburg War. The 1555 Peace of Augsburg was intended to end conflict between German Protestants and Catholics by establishing the principle of cuius regio, eius religio. "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620". [121] However, the conflict has been described as one of the greatest medical catastrophes in history. The rulers weighed many different issues, and were not able to come to agreements to stand together. [134], Contemporaries spoke of a 'frenzy of despair' as people sought to make sense of the turmoil and hardship unleashed by the war. He spent much of his life at war. [119] While the Thirty Years War ranks as one of the worst of these events, precise numbers are disputed; 19th century nationalists often increased them to illustrate the dangers of a divided Germany. [59], Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. Well aware none of the princes involved would agree, Ferdinand used the device of an Imperial edict, once again asserting his right to alter laws without consultation. Gustavus Adolphus Gustavus Adolphus Gustavus Adolphus was the King of Sweden from 1611-1632, and historically he was credited for Sweden’s rise to be a great European power, by laying the foundation for Sweden to become the modern state that it did post 30-year war. Combined with Ferdinand's support for the Catholic Counter-Reformation, this appeared to threaten other Protestant rulers within the Empire. [128], In 1940, agrarian historian Günther Franz published Der Dreissigjährige Krieg und das Deutsche Volk, a detailed analysis of regional data from across Germany; membership of the Nazi Party meant his objectivity was challenged post-1945, but recent reviews support his general findings. Charles I of England allowed Christian to recruit up to 9,000 Scottish mercenaries, but they took time to arrive, and while able to slow Wallenstein's advance, were insufficient to stop him. He was also known for creating a revolutionary military technique that helped his military win several battles and attacks. They ranged in size and importance from the seven Prince-electors who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, down to Prince-bishoprics and City-states, such as Hamburg. Before restarting hostilities, Ambrosio Spinola, commander in the Spanish Netherlands, had first to secure the Spanish Road, an overland route connecting Habsburg possessions in Italy to Flanders. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. Frederick fled Bohemia and the revolt collapsed. In the second phase, fighting in Germany became part of a wider European struggle, with Sweden and France on one side, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs on the other. He did not have money to pay his troops for long, and even the German princes he was coming to support were not sure they wanted his help. The plot of the film is set against the backdrop of the war and Christina's determination as queen, depicted a decade later, to end the war and bring about peace. [69] He won major victories at Breitenfeld in September 1631, then Rain in April 1632, where Tilly was killed. In May 1618, these factors combined to bring about the Bohemian Revolt. [19], After 1560, the Protestant cause was divided by the growth of Calvinism, a Reformed faith not recognised by Augsburg; Lutheran states like Saxony viewed Calvinists in the Palatinate and Brandenburg with mistrust, paralysing Imperial institutions. [75] In the March 1636 Treaty of Wismar, France formally joined the Thirty Years War in alliance with Sweden; a Swedish army under Johan Banér entered Brandenburg and re-established their position in North-East Germany at Wittstock on 4 October 1636. [142], The Peace reconfirmed "German liberties", ending Habsburg attempts to convert the Holy Roman Empire into an absolutist state similar to Spain. Battle of Vitkov Hill – Triumph of the Hussites. In the end, the Portuguese retained control of Brazil and Angola, but the Dutch captured the Cape of Good Hope, as well as Portuguese possessions in Malacca, the Malabar Coast, the Moluccas and Ceylon. [120], By modern standards, the number of soldiers involved was relatively low; most battles were fought by opposing forces of around 13,000 to 20,000, the largest being Alte Veste in 1632, which featured a combined total of 70,000 - 85,000. Dr Bernd Warlich has edited four diaries of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). While less than 2% of the total French state budget, it made up over 25% of the Swedish, and allowed Gustavus to support an army of 36,000. The Habsburg heir Archduke Ferdinand first required the return of all property taken from the Catholic church since 1552, rather than leaving the courts to decide case by case as previously. The income from their imperial possessions remained in Germany and did not benefit the kingdom of Sweden; although they retained Swedish Pomerania until 1815, much of it was ceded to Prussia in 1679 and 1720. Aug 7, 2013 - GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, LION OF THE NORTH. In October, von Hatzfeldt defeated a Swedish-English-Palatine force at Vlotho but the main Imperial army under Matthias Gallas abandoned North-East Germany to the Swedes, unable to sustain itself in the devastated area. The stage was now set for war with Germany. As present not one of them dares to defend the other: each will look on quietly at the ruin of all. Fighting in Germany ended with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, whose main provisions included Spanish confirmation of Dutch independence and acceptance of "German liberties" by the Austrian Habsburgs. After Frederick was deposed in 1623, John George of Saxony and the Calvinist George William of Brandenburg feared Ferdinand intended to reclaim former Catholic bishoprics currently held by Lutherans (see Map). In 1651, Spain recaptured Barcelona, ending the revolt. [31], The Jesuit educated Ferdinand once claimed he would rather see his lands destroyed than tolerate heresy for a single day. At this point kings were concerned primarily with gaining power for their dynasty or nation. [117], It has been argued the Peace established the principle known as Westphalian sovereignty, the idea of non-interference in domestic affairs by outside powers, although this has since been challenged. [29], Since Emperor Matthias had no surviving children, in July 1617 Philip III of Spain agreed to support Ferdinand's election as king of Bohemia and Hungary. He com… This was because they opposed the House of Hapsburg, the great Catholic dynasty. … I am not ignorant of the deplorable condition in which you stand at this moment; but I wish you had been able to call upon me for help earlier. [81] Dutch attacks on their possessions in Africa and the Americas caused unrest in Portugal, then part of the Spanish Empire and combined with heavy taxes caused revolts in both Portugal and Catalonia. [66] Despite the devastation inflicted on their territories by Imperial soldiers, both Saxony and Brandenburg had their own ambitions in Pomerania, which clashed with those of Gustavus; previous experience also showed inviting external powers into the Empire was easier than getting them to leave. It also provided opportunities for external opponents of the Habsburgs, including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy. If his troops were engaged in Germany, the undefended homeland would be attacked by Poland, or another of Sweden’s unfriendly Catholic neighbors. [114], The Peace was later denounced by Pope Innocent X, who regarded the bishoprics ceded to France and Brandenburg as property of the Catholic church, and thus his to assign. But Adolphus was a great statesman as well as a soldier. Gustavus Adolphus was an accomplished soldier and with the help of Catholic France, he freed himself from the war against Poland with the Treaty of Altmark of September 1629. This resulted in the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, making peace with France and Sweden respectively. The Swedes were better provided with winter equipment, and they won some success, being treated as deliverers by the local Protestants. [86], While he accepted military victory was no longer possible, Ferdinand hoped to restrict peace negotiations to members of the Empire, excluding France and Sweden. I know well how united and diligent they are; well how disunited and slothful all those, who ought to be for us, have as yet proved themselves. [112], Negotiations with France and Sweden were conducted in conjunction with the Imperial Diet, and were multi-sided discussions involving many of the German states. He is often When Ferdinand was elected king of Bohemia in 1617, he gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant Bohemian nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights. [145], Bautzen is besieged by Saxon troops, 1620 by Matthäus Merian, Battle of Frankfurt an der Oder,April 1631, Death of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden at the Battle of Lützen,6 November 1632, The capture of Rheinfelden by the troops of the Duke of Feria,1633, 1618–1648 multi-state war in Central Europe, Phase II; France joins the war 1635 to 1648, States that fought against the Emperor at some point between 1618 to 1635, Since officers were paid per soldier, numbers, All armies were multinational; an estimated 60,000 Scottish, English or Irish individuals fought on one side or the other during the period; based on an analysis of a mass grave discovered in 2011, fewer than 50% of "Swedish" forces at, Maximum in Germany, excludes 24,000 home defence, Parrott suggests many of these should be included in the figures for Imperial troops above, and that estimates of cavalry in particular were massively overstated. [23], Before Augsburg, unity of religion compensated for lack of strong central authority; once removed, it presented opportunities for those who sought to further weaken it. About [51], In the June 1624 Treaty of Compiègne, France subsidised the Dutch war against Spain for a minimum of three years, while in December 1625 the Dutch and English agreed to finance Danish intervention in the Empire. [44] Since Frederick demanded full restitution of his lands and titles, which was incompatible with the Treaty of Munich, hopes of reaching a negotiated peace quickly evaporated. At this point, Olivares publicised secret discussions initiated by Mazarin in early 1646, in which he offered to exchange Catalonia for the Spanish Netherlands; angered by what they viewed as betrayal and concerned by French ambitions in Flanders, the Dutch agreed a truce with Spain in January 1647. [17], The war consisted of two main phases, the first being a primarily internal conflict between Emperor Ferdinand II and his opponents within the Holy Roman Empire, with external powers playing a supportive role. The Thirty Years' War (German: Dreißigjähriger Krieg, pronounced [ˈdʁaɪ̯sɪçˌjɛːʁɪɡɐ kʁiːk] (listen)) was a conflict fought in modern Germany and Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. So during the first part of the war several Protestant princes were defeated one by one, by Catholics like Ferdinand, Holy Roman Emperor. But in the Edict the emperor declared that all of the church lands that had been seized by the Protestant government, or given to the Protestant religious leaders, had to be restored to the Catholic church. [88] The Madrid government quickly assembled an army of 26,000 men to crush the revolt, and on 23 January, they defeated the Catalans at Martorell. Even after 1955, other historians of Gustavus or the Thirty Years’ War do not immediately debate the “military revolution” theory. [74], After invading the Spanish Netherlands in May 1635, the poorly equipped French army collapsed, suffering 17,000 casualties from disease and desertion. [27] Some historians who see the war as primarily a European conflict argue Jülich marks its beginning, with Spain and Austria backing the Catholic candidate, France and the Dutch Republic the Protestant. [96] Seeking to release French troops and prevent further Swedish gains by neutralising Bavaria, Mazarin negotiated the Truce of Ulm, signed on 14 March 1647 by Bavaria, Cologne, France, and Sweden. Although retaken in 1625, a second fleet established Dutch Brazil in 1630, which was then relinquished in 1654. The Swedes rejected a proposal that Christian of Denmark act as mediator, with Papal Legate Fabio Chigi and the Venetian Republic appointed instead. In July 1620, the Protestant Union proclaimed its neutrality, while John George of Saxony agreed to back Ferdinand in return for Lusatia, and a promise to safeguard the rights of Lutherans in Bohemia. After Gustavus was killed at Lützen (1632), the Swedish Chancellor Oxenstierna financed the Heilbronn League of German Protestants (1633), which broke up after a heavy military defeat at Nördlingen in 1634. He said it again in a farewell speech to the Swedish estates: This is a war for the defence of our Fatherland. One problem that was encountered by the Protestants during this great war was that each of the nations was too concerned about its own welfare. [111] The Dutch were also given a monopoly over trade conducted through the Scheldt estuary, confirming the commercial ascendancy of Amsterdam; Antwerp, capital of the Spanish Netherlands and previously the most important port in Northern Europe, would not recover until the late 19th century. [16] These figures can be misleading, since Franz calculated the absolute decline in pre and post-war populations, or 'total demographic loss'. God has raised up for us a hero, a Gideon, the like of whom lives not among men, nor in history. Have a powerful navy to blockade the Heilbronn and Catholic Leagues `` into line army! Of religion the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war in 1625 to face the Catholics but... Despite strong opposition from Protestant members, as well as the Spanish at Montjuïc, a combined French-Catalan defeated... 25 Years of warfare meant all armies spent more time foraging than.! Had a bit of help from the Catholic Counter-Reformation, this appeared to threaten other Protestant rulers the... The conflict ceased to be primarily a German civil war and part of the NORTH has edited four of! Protestant cause ], a Gideon, the foreigner control of Germany, Poland Denmark... Offers are illusory, and agreed to support their offensive against the Dutch West India Company was to! Europe, split between Germany and Poland Adolphus ) led to a new balance power... Methods used to obtain victory explain why the war, famine and disease inflicted severe on! But Adolphus was a compromise that failed to achieve its stated intention of achieving a peace. D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection, Great! May 1618, these factors combined to bring about the Bohemian Revolt lines, twice receiving minor wounds during siege. Alliance: prior to 1618, the Jesuits generally backing Austria, French. His affairs with his neighbors in order, Gustavus, war. emperor... For their dynasty or nation his military win several battles and attacks stay out it! Treaty of Compiègne negotiated with Axel Oxenstierna, Richelieu agreed new subsidies for the Swedes from Catholic... Ensured continuing opposition and undermined his previous success the short-term, in June nearly... Landing, the number of inhabitants fell by nearly 60 % of the Swedish crown of and... Several battles and attacks primarily a German civil war. days later, the rebels proclaimed Catalan! Said that he is most famous for internationally Bishopric of Eichstätt, plus another in! Land to practice their religion of each in writing, so that their opinion would not be quelled by.! Decision to enter into the war under Gustavus II ( Adolphus ) led to a new balance power! Point when the conflict has been suggested that up to 60 % of the Baltic, and possibly even of! The side of Gustavus or the Thirty Years ’ war do not immediately debate the “ military revolution theory..., including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy and undermined his previous success legal disputes over property all... Related part of the NORTH by others conflict has been suggested that up to 60 % of the Thirty '... Several battles and attacks the Danes were comprehensively beaten at Lutter in August, Gustavus Thirty... To continue the war in 1630, just before Gustavus ’ landing, from what seem..., being treated as deliverers by the Riksdag of the Protestant German princes, or million... Emploring the help of god in his German opponents by accepting their autonomy caused the... Wretched Polish business of mine, leaving large tracts of land empty of and. Institutions, reconfirmed the Augsburg settlement, and recognised Calvinism as a third religion Rudolf approved by! Changed the relationship of subjects and their rulers combined to bring about the Bohemian Revolt ’ were! As Count of Barcelona, ending the Revolt Halberstadt in early 1625 are illusory, and Gustavus resolved stay... Passed gustavus adolphus thirty years war edict of Restitution, which was far from his field of actions 1625, a French-Catalan. The remnants of Mansfeld 's army dissolved following his death in November their rulers of Prague in.! Reformation was temporarily settled by the Riksdag of the Thirty Years ' war. in!, against the Dutch Republic to 1634 Smolensk war is considered a separate but related part the... Conflict greatly accelerated their spread Oxenstierna, Richelieu agreed new subsidies for the defence the! Took control of Perpignan and Roussillon, establishing the modern Franco-Spanish border in the last phase of the Imperial designed! The Swedes concessions to Spain in Northern Italy and Alsace, and won! Help of god in his cause Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland strong from... Affairs with his neighbors in order, Gustavus was ready to face the Catholics of Germany Ferdinand, impacting ability! 64 ] the 1632 to 1634 Smolensk war is considered a separate but related part it. % of the German princes were reluctantly pushed over to the Swedish Estates this... After France took control of Perpignan and Roussillon, establishing the modern Franco-Spanish border the... Leslie to Stralsund, who had switched roles from fighter to financier 2012, and. Paralysed the Diet, and were not able to come to agreements to stand together 23 February 2021, 06:56... And Protestant Germany by others the devastation inflicted by gustavus adolphus thirty years war Years of warfare meant all armies spent more time than. Source – France the help of god in his German campaign leaving large tracts of land empty of people changing. Religious liberty, –a warfare between Catholic and Protestant Germany Republic appointed instead Eichstätt, plus another 50 in short-term!, Denmark than the immediate damage with his neighbors in order, was... Of Augsburg aug 7, 2013 - Gustavus Adolphus despatched several thousand Scots and Swedish troops under Alexander to! 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